Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born Hillary Diane Rodham; October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker. She was first lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, a United States senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, and the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013. Clinton was the Democratic Party nominee for president of the United States in the 2016 election—the first woman to receive the presidential nomination of a major U.S. political party.
Raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1973. After serving as a congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married future president Bill Clinton in 1975; the two had met at Yale. In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families. She was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978, and became the first female partner at Little Rock's Rose Law Firm the following year. Clinton was the first lady of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, and again from 1983 to 1992; during that period, she led a task force whose recommendations helped reform Arkansas's public schools.
As first lady of the United States, Clinton advocated for healthcare reform. In 1994, her major initiative—the Clinton health care plan—failed to gain approval from Congress. In 1997 and 1999, Clinton played a leading role in advocating the creation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program, the Adoption and Safe Families Act, and the Foster Care Independence Act. Her marital relationship came under public scrutiny during the Lewinsky scandal, which led her to issue a statement that reaffirmed her commitment to the marriage. In 2000, Clinton was elected as the first female senator from New York. She was re-elected to the Senate in 2006. During her Senate tenure, Clinton advocated for medical benefits for first responders whose health was damaged in the September 11 attacks. Running for president in 2008, she won far more delegates than any previous female candidate, but lost the Democratic nomination to Barack Obama. During her tenure as U.S. secretary of state in the Obama Administration from 2009 to 2013, Clinton responded to the Arab Spring by advocating military intervention in Libya. She also took responsibility for security lapses related to the 2012 Benghazi attack which resulted in the deaths of American consulate personnel, but defended her personal actions in regard to the matter. Clinton helped to organize a diplomatic isolation and a regime of international sanctions against Iran in an effort to force it to curtail its nuclear program; this eventually led to the multinational Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action agreement in 2015. Her use of a private email server during her time as Secretary of State was later investigated for possible disclosure of classified information; in 2016, the FBI criticized Clinton regarding her e-mails, but recommended that no charges be filed. Upon leaving her Cabinet position after Obama's first term, she wrote her fifth book and undertook speaking engagements.
Clinton made a second presidential run in 2016. She received the most votes and primary delegates in the 2016 Democratic primaries, and ran in the general election with Virginia Senator Tim Kaine as her vice presidential running mate. She lost the presidential election to Republican opponent Donald Trump in the Electoral College despite winning a plurality of the popular vote. Following her loss, she wrote her third memoir, What Happened, and launched Onward Together, a political action organization dedicated to fundraising for progressive political groups.